1. The first Jordanian carriers
When Jordan gained its independence in 1946, it sought to increase its identity by establishing its own airline, which was formed on January 1 of that year as Arab Airlines. After opening the service in Beirut, it distributed its wings to Baghdad and Cairo by August 1947, and the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) became the main investor.
After developing into Arab Airlines Jerusalem, Ltd., six years later, it operated a fleet of two-engine Havelan Rapids from Jerusalem itself to Beirut and Cairo, but eventually added Aden, Amman, Baghdad and Jeddah. It was not the only carrier in the region.
Jordan Airlines, founded by His Excellency Ismail Belbeisi Fasha in 1950, started a service from Amman with Airspeed Consuls, but was cashed in 1953 by Transocean Airlines, an unscheduled airline that operates charter flights and contracts, enabling it to modernize its fleet With 21 Douglas DC-3s passengers. This ultimately links Oman with Kabul via Kuwait and Kandahar.
By reversing what has now become a competitor, Arab Airlines Jerusalem has acquired this type of aircraft.
They compete for a large portion of the passenger base itself, but they face competition from other airlines in the Middle East, and they have chosen to merge and form Jordan Air in the Holy Land.
Initially it operated two Convair CV-240 ships chartered from Trans Ocean, bought DC-4 in 1960, and was able to serve longer routes, such as those destined for Rome from its center in Amman. Despite the promise made by this larger four-wheel drive aircraft, the startup was forced to suspend operations on September 1 of the following year when its license was revoked.
Only one month passed before the creation of Khalifa – in this case, Jordanian Airlines, which were jointly owned by private interests (40 per cent), the Jordanian government (25 per cent), and Middle East Airlines (25 per cent as well), which it supplied With three Vickers V.700 Viscounts and turbopower-powered charter flight crews. His reign was equally short.
2. The carrier flag
In pursuit of the establishment of the International Transport Company in the country, King Hussein asked Jordan, who himself was a pilot, Ali Ghandour, Vice President of the then Lebanese International Airlines, to draw up plans for a flag airline, the king himself intended, to serve as "." … the national carrier to be a goodwill ambassador around the world and the bridge through which we exchange culture, civilization, trade, technology, friendship and better understanding with the rest of the world. "
She was named after his eldest daughter, and the resulting company was Muhammad Alia Airlines. Although its construction was only completed on December 8, 1963, the King issued one additional request – that he be airlifted within a week.
In pursuit of what could have been considered an impossible goal, Ghandour managed to turn plans into aircraft, and acquired two Handley Big Herald 207 planes chartered by the Royal Jordanian Air Force and Douglas DC7C, who opened service from Amman to Beirut on December 15. ), Cairo and Kuwait were added the following week and another DC-7 enabled it from the Jeddah service
The piston engines subsequently succumbed to jet engines, through the acquisition of Sud-Aviation SE.210-10R Caravelles, which was first delivered on July 29, 1965, and facilitated high-speed and over-weather services. To Europe, especially to Rome and Paris.
Ever fighting adversity and obstacles, however, he again encounters an enemy. After Israel took control of Jerusalem two years later, in June, Israel immediately withdrew two of the country's most important resources – tourism and agriculture – which led to a significant drop in demand for the services of the new carrier, which reduced the factors for aircraft loading.
During this latest crisis, Jordanians discovered a third resource – that is, themselves – and only with determination and sincerity, they remained high up. The subsequent acquisition was given by the government with the necessary financial support.
Having successfully weathered its latest turmoil, it was marked by its entry into the 1970s by acquiring the first long-range jet aircraft, having acquired the first two Boeing 707-320Cs on January 19 of the following year, and these roads expanded the way Specifically to Karachi in the east, Madrid, Casablanca, and Copenhagen in the west.
A joint service, though brief, was operated from Karachi to East Africa with Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).
The 707 was the first of several types of Boeing aircraft to be acquired. 720Bs, for example, were acquired in 1972 for the low-density mid-range sectors, while three advanced 727-200 triple aircraft were purchased for short to medium-range operations. Equipped with a more flexible and economical fleet, it was able to expand into the European region and continent.
Entering the era of the broad body, Alia acquired the first Boeing 747-200B on December 15, 1976, which facilitated the launch of the transatlantic service from Amman to New York and Houston via Vienna or Amsterdam in July of the following year, the first Arab airline to do so. It became the first of two types of wide body to operate.
After deviating from the entire Boeing fleet, the company ordered six Lockheed L-1011-500 aircraft. Entering service in October 1981 between Amman and London Heathrow, the three-carrier engine type enabled European destinations and many destinations in the Middle East, such as those destined for the Gulf states, with wide-body aircraft for the first time.
A sequel to the 747, it operated the Amman-Vienna / Amsterdam – New York routes on certain days, as well as one that recently opened to Los Angeles with an intermediate stop in Chicago. The JFK segment has also been upgraded to non-stop mode and some flights operate across Montreal.
By 1982, it was managing seven 707-320Cs, one 720-030B, six 727-200 Advanceds, three 747-200Bs, two of which were in a combi configuration with major cargo loading capabilities on deck, and two L-1011-500s.
After retiring the four-engine narrow bodies, by 1985 its fleet had centered around 747 for the long-range and high-density roads, the TriStar 500 for the medium to long-range, medium-density sectors, and 727 for the short-to-medium-cotton sectors, the low-density sectors.
December 15, 1986 celebrated many highlights: The Jordanian flag bearer celebrated the tenth anniversary of the Middle East and the United States and its silver jubilee in the quarter of a century, in celebration of this occasion with the image and name of a new company, the latter was modified from "Alia" to, simply , Royal Jordanian Airlines, in order to confirm its identity.
Ali Ghandour, Chairman and CEO, said, "The new company name is the embodiment of our sense of heritage, as well as our sense of our destiny, our accomplishments and aspirations, and in this process the" ownership "relationship that we have preserved from the beginning is recognized and confirmed and recognized.
"Last but not least," he concluded, "I would like to emphasize that we have not sought change for our benefit, but to show us and the world that we are moving forward in our view, determined in our efforts to move forward and confident as well as full of hope for a bright future."
As of January 1, 1987, the Jordanian Royal Pathways system consists of 41 cities in 34 countries on four continents.
These include three long-term routes to the North Atlantic, including the sectors Amman – Vienna – New York, Amman – Amsterdam – New York, Amman – Vienna – Chicago – Los Angeles, and two eastern long-term routes, including Oman, Bangkok and Amman Kuala Lumpur – Singapore.
Two North African routes were created, from Amman to Tripoli and from Amman to Tunisia and Casablanca, while one destination was introduced in the former Soviet Union, Moscow.
European destinations included Amsterdam, Athens, Belgrade, Brussels, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Geneva, Istanbul, Larnaca, London, Madrid, Paris Orly, Rome and Vienna.
Not surprisingly, there is a great focus on the Middle East route that includes Abu Dhabi, Amman, Baghdad, Bahrain, Cairo, Damascus, Dhahran, Doha, Dubai, Jeddah, Karachi, Kuwait, Muscat, Riyadh, and Sanaa.
Its only domestic sector was between its center and the Aqaba.
Two joint services were also operated – to Beirut with Middle East Airlines and to East Berlin with Interflug.
During the five-year period from 1979 to 1983, the annual number of passengers carried included the following: 1979: 915,000; 1980: 10,000,000; 1981: 1440,000; 1982: 667273; and 1983: 145734.
Regardless of the airline itself, Royal Jordanian has counted several air and land subsidiaries in its portfolio.
Previously, it was Arab Air Cargo. Founded in 1974, Jordan International Airlines succeeded in March 1982 as a Jordanian-Iraqi joint venture, and opened freight service on May 1 of the following year with two 707-320C cargo planes.
Both AACO and ICAO members have flown to cities such as Amman, Amsterdam, Baghdad, Brussels, Dubai, Larnaca, London and Rome. Six hundred and twelve flights were made in 1985, during which 4,5151 hours revenue and 21,166 tons of cargo were transported, and received $ 16.6 million.
Arab Wings Company, its second subsidiary, provided a fast service for chartering business aircraft on demand in remote and inaccessible areas of the Middle East, and it was then the only operation of its kind in the region. With co-financing from the government of the Sultanate of Oman (one-third) and the Jordanian king himself (two-thirds), the service was opened in May of 1975 and the operation of two of the six passengers Gates Leargate 35s and one of eight passengers Rockwell Sabrilliner 75A from Oman and the Muscat Air bases.
During the three-year period from 1981 to 1983, it carried respectively 1636, 2166, and 1,390 passengers.
A separate branch, the Arab Wings of Air Ambulance (AWFA), provided air service and was taken to heaven for the first time in 1978.
Sierra Leone Airlines, its third subsidiary, was formed in 1982 to succeed Sierra Leone Airlines, which was founded in 1958 and opened service in November from Freetown, Sierra Leone, to London, with joint ownership of Royal Jordanian (20 percent), private interests (20 percent). ), And the Sierra Leone government (60 percent).
Subsequent expansion led to the opening of international services from Freetown-Longy to Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Accra (Ghana), Dakar (Senegal), Lagos (Nigeria), Las Palmas (Canary Islands), London, Monrovia (Liberia), Paris, Whereas, domestic flights, based in Freetown, Hastings, linked the airport with Ponte, Kenema, and Yangma, all of which were 707-320, 720 one and two from Bretten Norman Trlunders. It was later replaced by CASA C-212-200 Aviocars.
In addition to these subsidiaries, Royal Jordanian also had several land companies. Among these airports is Queen Alia International Airport (QAIA), which opened on May 25, 1983 and includes two connected stations with 12 gates and can annually accommodate up to five million passengers.
The hospitality management, which had the capacity to prepare 20,000 daily meals for on-board catering, the terminal restaurant, snack bars, and staff cafeterias, managed the 315-room Alia Gateway Hotel which opened in 1985 and It was used by transit passengers and flight crews. He also supervised the duty free shops at the airport.
The Royal Jordanian Training Center was divided into the Technical Training Institute and the Trade and Administration Center.
Comprising of civil and military branches, the Royal Jordanian Air Academy, another branch, was appointed to the Middle East Regional Technical Center in 1985 by the International Air Transport Association.
Several other concerns included the Queen Noor Civil Aviation Institute; Arab Airlines, which was the engineering consulting branch that helped design and build the airport itself between 1979 and 1983; the Royal Jordanian Collection of Folk Art Alia Art Gallery and Royal Tours.
4. RJ today
The fleet modernization witnessed the last decade of the history of the Royal Jordanian Company in the twentieth century, indicating a long-time shift of loyalty from Boeing and Lockheed products to Airbus industrial aircraft, the first of which was the A-310-300.
Powered by two high bypass turbines carried by the two-person cockpit crew, it replaced the 727 on roads where demand exceeded its power or proved to be too weak for the L-1011s, while providing wide double comfort in the aisle. Due to its scale capability, it has operated Jordan and the US sectors across the Atlantic, especially during periods of low demand.
However, these planes were mainly transported by the addition of a second Airbus fleet, the A-340-200 Quad Engine, which eventually replaced the 747 and TriStars.
Bonafide 727 alternatives were formed, on regional, Middle Eastern, North African and European parts, as a twin-engine family with a narrow chassis A-319, A-320 and A-321, while short-range and regional tracks were flying the Embraer E-175 and E-195. , Consisting of two classes, on a plane of another type, which respectively accommodated 72 and 100 passengers. Both were well suited for the 45-minute jump between the capital and the Aqaba resort on the Red Sea.
Royal Jordanian, admitted as a member of the Oneworld Alliance in 2007, continued to develop its long-range fleet, gaining 233,000 kg of A-330-200s consisting of 24 crowns and 259 economic seats between 2010 and 2011 and 227,930 kg 787-8 aircraft dreamliners respectively accommodate 24 and 247 passengers between August and November 2014. The A-310s were intermittently converted into cargo ships with front and top opening doors for cargo on deck and A-340 aircraft, due to their non-stop Upon operating four fuel consumption engines, they were completely removed from service.
Royal Jordanian prepared on the threshold of the Golden Jubilee on December 15, 2012, when it presented a series of fiftieth anniversary on one of its aircraft, which re-activated the airline's first route to Beirut.
After fighting regional obstacles and conflicts, he has served as a vital contributor to the country's culture and economy. With the scarcity of natural resources, agriculture and tourism in the occupied West Bank have been closed, it has served as an air bridge to the rest of the world, and has become one of the main sources of income in the country, and for this reason travelers are viewed as vital to their continued existence. As a result, it was, to a large extent, the basis on which the State itself relied.
Looking at the carrier’s history, Mr. Nasser Lawzy said during the golden jubilee ceremony held at Queen Alia International Airport in December 2012, “When His Majesty King Hussein launched her name RJ December 15, 1963, he wanted to be the national carrier of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan With the aim of contributing to Jordan's progress, enhancing interaction with other cultures, and establishing relations with other nations … (today) we are proud of being the national carrier that links Jordan and the Levant with the world. "
Looking back at its growth, which saw an increase in the annual number of travelers from 87,000 in 1964 to more than 3.3 million in 2012, President and CEO Amer Al-Hadidi said, "Royal Jordanian has been a pioneer in establishing a solid base for the air transport industry locally and regionally. "
Three E-175, five E-195s, 4 A-319-100, six A-320-200s, two A-321-200s, and three A-330 operating -200s, and five from 787 to 8s By the end of 2014, Royal Jordanian served 54 destinations on four continents and appeared to be looking good to continue the mission created by its founder.